Group 1: Etymology and Historical Perspectives of Pride

  • ‘Proud’ originates from late Old English ‘prut’ likely from Old French ‘prud’ meaning brave or valiant.
  • Pride in ancient Greek philosophy: Aristotle identified pride as the crown of virtues, differentiating it from vanity, temperance, and humility.
  • Aristotle considered pride a profound virtue, while hubris is seen as a vice.
  • The Latin term ‘prodesse’ meaning to be of use is also associated with the etymology of ‘proud’.
  • In Classical Christian theology, pride is viewed as the result of high self-esteem.
  • Excessive pride in the King James Bible is labeled as Haughty.

Group 2: Psychological and Emotional Aspects of Pride

  • Psychology classifies pride as a cognitive and evaluative emotion, focusing on self and one’s properties.
  • Pride is experienced as pleasurable in Western cultures.
  • Positive pride is a pleasant emotion stemming from self-evaluation.
  • Pride arises from meeting or conforming to a standard, while guilt or shame stems from defying it.
  • ‘Fiero’ is a term describing pride after overcoming adversity.

Group 3: Positive Outcomes and Behavioral Impact of Pride

  • Pride results from personal goal achievement, fostering self-directed satisfaction.
  • Pride promotes feelings of similarity to strong individuals and differentiation from weak ones.
  • It leads to exhilarated pleasure and a sense of accomplishment.
  • Pride enhances creativity, productivity, altruism, and social behaviors like helping others.
  • Pride is linked to positive behaviors and outcomes in areas where one excels.

Group 4: Cultural Perceptions and Ethnic Manifestations of Pride

  • Pride in ethnicity and culture is generally positive.
  • Different cultures have varying views on individual vs. societal pride.
  • Black pride in the US emphasizes black racial identity.
  • Asian pride is mainly associated with East Asian descent.
  • White pride slogan used by white supremacist groups.

Group 5: National Pride and Social Movements

  • National pride in Germany is linked to Nazism.
  • Asian pride is affected by historical conflicts among Asian nations.
  • The LGBT Pride Movement advocates for LGBTQ+ individuals globally.
  • The modern gay pride movement started after the Stonewall riots.
  • Worldwide movements focus on equal rights and benefits for LGBTQ+ people.
Pride (Wikipedia)

Pride is defined by Merriam-Webster as "reasonable self-esteem" or "confidence and satisfaction in oneself". Oxford defines it as "the quality of having an excessively high opinion of oneself or one's own importance." Pride may be related to one's own abilities or achievements, positive characteristics of friends or family, or one's country. Richard Taylor defined pride as "the justified love of oneself", as opposed to false pride or narcissism. Similarly, St. Augustine defined it as "the love of one's own excellence", and Meher Baba called it "the specific feeling through which egoism manifests."

Allegory of pride, from c. 1590–1630, engraving, 22.3 cm × 16.6 cm, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)

Philosophers and social psychologists have noted that pride is a complex secondary emotion that requires the development of a sense of self and the mastery of relevant conceptual distinctions (e.g. that pride is distinct from happiness and joy) through language-based interaction with others. Some social psychologists identify the nonverbal expression of pride as a means of sending a functional, automatically perceived signal of high social status.

Pride may be considered the opposite of shame or of humility, sometimes as proper or as a virtue, and sometimes as corrupt or as a vice. With a positive connotation, pride refers to a content sense of attachment toward one's own or another's choices and actions, or toward a whole group of people, and is a product of praise, independent self-reflection, and a fulfilled feeling of belonging. Other possible objects of pride are one's ethnicity, and one's sex identity (for example LGBT pride).[citation needed] With a negative connotation pride refers to a foolishly and irrationally corrupt sense of one's personal value, status or accomplishments, used synonymously with hubris.

While some philosophers such as Aristotle (and George Bernard Shaw) consider pride (but not hubris) a profound virtue, some world religions consider pride's fraudulent form a sin, such as is expressed in Proverbs 11:2 of the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism, pride is called the root of all evil. When viewed as a virtue, pride in one's abilities is known as virtuous pride, greatness of soul, or magnanimity, but when viewed as a vice it is often known to be self-idolatry, sadistic contempt, vanity, or vainglory.


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