1. Causes and Impact of Weather:

  • Weather phenomena include wind, cloud, rain, snow, fog, and dust storms.
  • Troposphere is where most weather phenomena occur.
  • Weather is primarily due to air pressure, temperature, and moisture differences.
  • Strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air leads to atmospheric circulation cells and the jet stream.
  • Earth’s axis tilt causes sunlight angles to vary, creating seasons.
  • Changes in Earth’s orbital parameters affect solar energy distribution and long-term climate.
  • Uneven solar heating leads to frontogenesis and weather patterns.
  • Weathering is a fundamental process that shapes the Earth’s surface.
  • Rainwater’s absorption of carbon dioxide creates slightly acidic conditions aiding erosion.
  • Weathering breaks down rocks and soils into smaller fragments.
  • Chemical reactions from weathering can lead to the formation of new substances.

2. Weather Forecasting and Prediction:

  • Weather forecasting uses science and technology to predict atmospheric conditions.
  • Earth’s weather system is chaotic, making accurate long-term predictions challenging.
  • Small changes in the system can lead to significant effects on the weather.
  • Meteorological research aims to improve forecast accuracy.
  • Predicting weather beyond a few days is challenging due to the system’s complexity.
  • Human input is needed to pick forecast models.
  • Factors affecting forecast accuracy.
  • Importance of weather warnings for protection.
  • End users of weather forecasts in different sectors.

3. Weather’s Effects on Earth and Beyond:

  • Studying weather on other planets helps understand Earth’s weather patterns.
  • Weather is not limited to planetary bodies and extends to stars.
  • Solar wind movement affects weather patterns in the Solar System.
  • Understanding weather on other planets aids in comprehending Earth’s atmospheric processes.
  • Weather constantly experienced by all humans.
  • National Weather Service reports on fatalities, injuries, and damages.
  • Tornadoes causing the most impact in 2019.
  • Weather communication common among people.
  • Various understandings of weather effects on humans.

4. Weather Modification and Extremes:

  • History of weather control attempts.
  • Cloud seeding as a successful weather modification technique.
  • Human activities causing inadvertent weather modification.
  • Effects of anthropogenic pollutants on weather.
  • Climate change’s impact on extreme weather events.
  • New high temperature records surpassing new low temperature records in recent decades.
  • Earth’s temperatures typically range ¬±40¬∞C annually.
  • Coldest air temperature recorded on Earth: ‚àí89.2¬∞C at Vostok Station, Antarctica.
  • Hottest air temperature recorded: 57.7¬∞C at Aziziya, Libya.
  • Highest recorded average annual temperature: 34.4¬∞C at Dallol, Ethiopia.

5. Microscale Meteorology and Planetary Weather:

  • Study of short-lived atmospheric phenomena.
  • Focus on small-scale weather processes.
  • Impacts of microscale meteorology on local weather.
  • Applications of microscale meteorology in various fields.
  • Understanding microscale weather patterns and dynamics.
  • Jupiters Great Red Spot is a long-lasting anticyclonic storm.
  • Gas giants like Neptune have winds reaching up to 600m/s.
  • HD 189733 b has easterly winds at over 9,600 km/h.
  • Jupiter’s jet stream is heated by its surface.
  • The jet stream of Titan was analyzed.
Weather (Wikipedia)

Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. On Earth, most weather phenomena occur in the lowest layer of the planet's atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature, precipitation, and other atmospheric conditions, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, "weather" is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth.

Weather is driven by air pressure, temperature, and moisture differences between one place and another. These differences can occur due to the Sun's angle at any particular spot, which varies with latitude. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations: the Hadley cell, the Ferrel cell, the polar cell, and the jet stream. Weather systems in the middle latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet streamflow. Because Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane (called the ecliptic), sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. On Earth's surface, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (−40 °F to 104 °F) annually. Over thousands of years, changes in Earth's orbit can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate change.

Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences. Higher altitudes are cooler than lower altitudes, as most atmospheric heating is due to contact with the Earth's surface while radiative losses to space are mostly constant. Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. Earth's weather system is a chaotic system; as a result, small changes to one part of the system can grow to have large effects on the system as a whole. Human attempts to control the weather have occurred throughout history, and there is evidence that human activities such as agriculture and industry have modified weather patterns.

Studying how the weather works on other planets has been helpful in understanding how weather works on Earth. A famous landmark in the Solar System, Jupiter's Great Red Spot, is an anticyclonic storm known to have existed for at least 300 years. However, the weather is not limited to planetary bodies. A star's corona is constantly being lost to space, creating what is essentially a very thin atmosphere throughout the Solar System. The movement of mass ejected from the Sun is known as the solar wind.


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